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Archive: January 13, 2008

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a solid spatial puzzle

Sunday,  01/13/08  07:41 AM

I am a big fan of 3D spatial puzzles; you know, those things with the bars, and ropes and balls and holes, where you have to twist the parts around and loop them and pull them and so on to free one or more pieces.  What can I say, they're fun.

So, my daughter Megan brought one home recently that was the best one I've ever encountered.  First, it was really hard, and second, it is deceptively simple, and third, it is composed entirely of three solid parts.  Here it is in its original state, with the three parts intertwined:

The puzzle, original state.  (click for closeup)

At first it doesn't seem there is any way to do anything, the pieces have plenty of "wiggle" room, but you can't seem to change their spatial orientation relative to each other.  I literally spent three days off and on playing with the puzzle before I could even make the first move.  After that I realized it wasn't a joke (!), and I realized it was a great puzzle.  Everything you try almost works, but then some little geometric feature of a piece prevents it from working.  Finally after about a week I was able to free one piece!  Yay.  But I couldn't free the other piece, and I even starting thinking perhaps that's all there was to the puzzle; that the goal was to free one piece, and leave the two others linked.  And then yesterday as I was looking at it again, I thought to myself: "the people who made this puzzle did a great job.  They would not have designed it such that two pieces were left linked."  So finally, after about an hour of futzing (!), I was able to separate the last two pieces.  Yay.  And whew.  Here it is with the piece separated:

the solution!
The puzzle, solved.  (click for closeup)

Awesome.  What's really amazing to me is how was this puzzle designed?  Each piece has this weird shape, perfectly designed to fit and be manipulated in only one way, and to create problems for every other way.  Someone must have spent a lot of time laboriously crafting this puzzle.  And to what end?  So it could be sold for $25 in a novelty store?  Or so I could enjoy solving it, and blog about it?

Bonus question: if you wanted to Google for this, how would you do it?


view digital slides on your iPhone!

Sunday,  01/13/08  05:37 PM

The other day I mentioned my new iToy, a spiffy iPod Touch.  An obvious thing for me to do with such a cool device with such a nice screen would be to view digital slides.  (After all, that's what I do.)  And it didn't work.  Boo.

When you view digital slides on a website using Aperio software, a little program called WebViewer is displayed right inside your browser.  You may have seen this (if you visit digital pathology sites, anyway), it looks like this:

the Aperio WebViewer

This WebViewer program is written in a language called Flash.  And the iPod / iPhone do not support Flash.  Boo.  Maybe someday the iPhone will support Flash, and everything will just work.  (That day could be as soon as next week; Apple has a lot of announcements planned at Macworld.)  However, that day could be never, and who wants to wait that long?

So we made it possible to display digital slides without Flash, using a different language called JavaScript.  The iPod / iPhone do support JavaScript.  Yay.  The JavaScript viewer works almost like the Flash viewer, but there are some differences.  Mostly these differences are to make using the viewer easier on an iPhone.

When you're viewing on an iPhone, you can zoom in.  I’m sure you've tried this (or have seen it), you pinch your fingers apart, and poof, the screen zooms.  Very cool.  Once you've zoomed in, you can pan around.  You just brush your finger in the direction you want the screen to go, and poof, it pans.  Very cool.  The result of this zooming and panning is that at any moment you might be looking at only a portion of the viewer window.  Something like this:

how the iPhone displays a WebViewer page

You can see, the controls for zooming and panning are at the bottom of the window, and are not visible on the screen.  Not good.

So with the iPhone viewer, the controls are only displayed when you want to use them.  You click on the screen with your finger, and the controls are displayed right there in on the screen, where you clicked.  Like this:

iPhone digital slide viewer

The red circle shows where you clicked, and the controls are displayed so you can see them.  Now you can click on one of the controls to zoom in (plus), zoom out (minus), pan (arrows), or “show the whole slide” (the circle with an arrow).  If you click outside the controls, they are hidden again.

When you click on a control, it turns red to confirm that you clicked it.  For example here’s what it looks like after you zoom in:

iPhone digital slide viewer while zooming

The plus stays red while the image is being updated; then the controls are hidden again.

That’s really it; hopefully people will find this pretty easy to use.  It has been installed on the Aperio slide gallery, which you can get to from our website under the Applications menu.  You can also go directly to

Oh, and you can view slides in landscape format just by turning your iPhone sideways.  Like this:

iPhone digital slide viewer, landscape mode

Yay.  Now I can play with my iToy!

Okay, a little more detail for those of you who, er, want a little more detail.

Since we don’t have Flash, we can't run anything client-side except JavaScript.  In theory it would be possible to build a viewer with AJAX, essentially duplicating the functionality of WebViewer.  (e.g. Google Maps is entirely JavaScript.)  However the user-interface would have to be pretty different.  In addition to the zoom/pan phenomenon mentioned above (wherein the iPhone displays only part of the window), you also have the problem of limited user input.  With no dragging, no modifier keys, and no double-clicks, you are down to handling a single click somewhere in the window.  (All those things are captured by the iPhone for its user interface, and are not passed to the browser.)  You would need some kind of “modal” controls.  This could be worked around and someday we might build a full-on AJAX viewer.

But I’m impatient.  In the meantime, how about a poor man’s viewer?

Aperio's ImageServer can return any view of any digital slide, at any zoom level.  So it can already do the work!  Panning and zooming by repainting the whole window is slow, but it isn’t impossibly slow (especially with a small window).  So that’s the core functionality of this viewer.  The server-side page generation logic checks the browser user-agent to see if it is dealing with an iPod / iPhone, and if so it generates a different page, which doesn’t embed the WebViewer Flash object.  Instead it just loads the slide client area with a single image rendered by ImageServer.

Now how about the controls?  They are “painted on” over the slide image using CSS.  The JavaScript captures the clicks from the user’s finger, and reloads the image asynchronously, without reloading the page.

It may not be the most complicated development, but it was easy and looks nice.  By W=UH, it is "not wrong".


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Correlation vs. Causality
The Tyranny of Email
Unnatural Selection
Aperio's Mission = Automating Pathology
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Try, or Try Not
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introducing eyesFinder
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